My research over the past twenty-eight years has explored society/nature interaction by integrating conceptual and methodological approaches from political ecology, cultural ecology, and environmental history in (post)colonially-informed, collaborative fieldwork with Sharwas (Sherpas) and other indigenous peoples. I am particularly concerned with documenting and supporting indigenous peoples’ land use, commons management, conservation values and practices, and struggles for sovereignty and self-determination. One focus of my work has been analysis of how indigenous peoples have adapted to, resisted, and negotiated nationalization and globalization processes and the ramifications this has had for their self determination, livelihoods, and homelands. My concerns include illuminating the processes and impacts of state, imperial, and transnational control of territory and resources, national and global economic integration (including tourism development), and imposed state and international conservation discourses, institutions, and policies. This has involved me in advocacy for community and regional empowerment, including community-based conservation and efforts by communities, government agencies, NGOs, INGOs, and multilateral organizations to create new kinds of protected areas which are inhabited, authorized, and managed by Indigenous peoples – what I call (post)colonial protected areas. I continue also to be concerned with the study of the consequences for people, landscapes, and ecosystems of changing local and regional control of territory, land use practices, conservation values, and “natural resources” and commons management practices.