Looking southeast over Kibo (5,895m) and Mawenzi (5,149m) Peaks of the Kilimanjaro massif. The Northern Icefield is the ice body in the foreground, draped over the crater rim, and the Western Breach is just to the right (our ascent route). When Hans Meyer first climbed Kibo in 1889 the crater rim was nearly encircled by ice, rendering entry to the crater difficult. Today only a small fraction of this ice remains (~15%); virtually all of the white area within the crater on this image is seasonal snowcover. (Compare with this largely snow-free image from 1974 or from 2000.)  See also Feb. 2000 Icefield margin view or Landsat-7 image, and read about our program to document changes in the icefield margin.

Photo credit: Capt. G. Mazula (fax +255-51-25551); date of photo unknown.

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aerial view